Table of contents
Home/Hot Topic

Part A
What is up for discussion?

Hot Issue in Cold Environment! How can it serve Climate?
(A) A climatic revolution
(B) Objective of investigation
(C) Where, When, Why

Part B
Warming of Spitsbergen, Facts and Considerations

Use of temperature series
What offers modern science?
How the warming was discussed until the 1940s

Part C
Analysing the warming event

General observations
Which sea areas could have contributed?
The warming event in detail
  1. Exceptional temperatures
  2. Distant warming
  3. Arctic Ocean
  4. Greenland
  5. Barents Sea
  6. Europe
  7. Is Spitsbergen the sole heating-up spot?

Part D
What caused the Arctic-warming?

What does not explain the warming?
Ocean’s potential – Ocean’s forcing
Which causing mechanism should be discussed?
Can WWI have caused the Spitsbergen warming?
(A) Which potential forces are available?
(B) Naval force a force to recon
  1. Why naval force?
  2. How close was the naval war to Spitsbergen?
  3. When got naval war in full swing?
  4. Weapon scenario that stirred the seas
  5. Churning the sea activities.
  6. Other means causing alterations
(C) Linking Naval war to Arctic-warming
  1. The general situation
  2. The week point of linking the events
  3. A further strong point of linking the events
(D) Conclusion
Annex A - Spitsbergen Temp Birkeland
Annex B I - Colored Sea Ice graphs 1910-1919
Annex B II - Original Sea Ice graphs 1910-1919
Annex C - Arctic Sea Ice; April & September 1912 – 1922
Annex D - Winter weather conditions 1916 - 1917
Annex E - Naval warfare WWI
Annex F - Air Temp. 1912-1930; North Atlantic Region.
Annex G - Annual Mean Temperatures from app.1880-1947
in the Northern Atlantic Region.
Annex H - Europe.
   __The ANNUAL
   __The D/J/F


North Atlantic sea ice in summer 1917
contributing to the biggest climatic shift last century?
And what caused this extraordinary event?
Posted by A. Bernaerts, 21 February 2014

Never has such a high sea ice extent been observed in the North Atlantic as in summer 1917 (Fig.3). This exceptional case has never been investigated. Worst! Science seems not to have taken notice of it although thorough understanding of the event could possibly answer two important questions concerning climate change:
FIRST: Contribute the late icing and subsequent melting process to the sudden extraordinary warming at Svalbard and polar region (Fig.2 & 3) since winter 1918/19?
SECOND: Contribute naval war around Great Britain since 1914 to the exceptional icing?

Fig. 1; March 1917 Fig. 2; April 1917 Fig. 3; May 1917 Fig. 4; July 1917

Although air temperatures at Svalbard fell to all time record low in winter 1917, sea ice conditions in March were usual (Fig. 1). In general annual sea ice extent is highest in April, but succeeded average already in April, Fig. 2; rising to a level by end of May, which presumably has not happen for more than 200 years or longer, Fig.3. Even in late July the sea ice remained at a unusual high level, Fig.4. This late and extensive icing process may have had a pronounced impact and ocean water structure, from sea level to may hundred meter depth, which could have influenced the most significant climatic change in the 20th Century, namely the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere warming that started 18 months later in winter 1918/19 (Fig. 5, 6 & 7)..

Fig. 5; Svalbard, T°C, seasons & annual Fig. 6; Annual T°C north of 70°1900-2013 + Fig.15

The sudden temperature increase at Svalbard commented the Norwegian scientist B.J. Birkeland in 1930: “In conclusion I would like to stress that the mean deviation (at Svalbard, Fig. 5 & 7) results in very high figures, probably the greatest yet known on earth” . Indeed, in any way exceptional. The significance for the entire Polar region is shown in Fig. 6 (15 & 16) indicating the annual. According I. Schell (1956) such a situation may not have been duplicated earlier for 200 years and more (Fig. 8). It seems that the year 1866 is regarded as the most severe ice year (Fig. 9), but that relates to April while the case 1917 is in May/June.

Fig.7, Svalbard T°C annual means Fig.8, I. Schell (1959) said: Fig.9, Extreme sea ice years

What contributed naval war in Europe since August 1914? In summer 1916 the naval war machinery entered a new dimension. Sea mines, sub-marines, torpedoes, depth charges, aerial bombing, were produce an masse and used. Now almost 5-10 merchant ships sunk every day. All water from SW Wales/UK and North Sea travelled northwards with an impact on the sea surface and ocean structure down to many dozen meters, Fig. 10-13.

Fig.10 Fig.11 Fig.12 Fig.13

Exactly at the same time the summer season got a sea ice extent never observed and 1 ½ years later the biggest temperature jump in the Northern North Atlantic and adjacent sector in the Arctic ever observed (Fig.14).

  1. First QUESTION: What was the role and impact of navel war on the sea ice situation in the North Atlantic in summer 1917?
  2. Second QUESTION: What was the role and impact of summer sea ice on the ocean structure in the high North in winter 1918/19?
  3. Third QUESTION: What was the role and impact of naval war in Northern European waters on the Norwegian and West Spitsbergen Current and subsequently ocean structure between August 1914 and November 1918?

The correlation between warming in the Arctic and naval war is evident. It seems time to investigate and prove it.

Continue reading:

Fig. 14; Main area of warming between 1920 and 1939 Fig. 15 & Fig. 16
For more details click on image
Hot topics
Related sites
National Climate Conference
Chennai/ India;
Indian Drought and North Atlantic
1917 & 1918


CLIMATE 2009 Conference
The Circumstances of the Arctic Warming in the early 20th Century

In PDF (900KB)

_The Air Vent,  04 Nov.09
_Whats-Up-With-That, 04 Nov.09


PACON 2007, Honolulu,
Published PACON , CD-ROM.

with Figures (p.20)

In English

In French

In Russian

In Polish

In German